SDG 16 Indicators

SDG 16 Indicators

In the 2030 Agenda, member states tasked the UN Statistical Commission, a rotating group of National Statistical Offices, to develop indicators for all SDG targets (paragraph 75). The Statistical Commission created the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators (IAEG-SDGs) which developed a set of 232 indicators, including 23 for SDG 16. With some refinements, these were adopted at the 48th session of the United Nations Statistical Commission in March 2017 and by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017.

These 23 indicators for SDG 16 are spread across target areas and, in most cases, there are 2-4 indicators for each target area. Each of these indicators, as with all global indicators in the SDGs, has a designated custodian agency which is responsible for the methodological development and ongoing refinement of the indicator; collecting data from national statistical systems and UN regional commissions; co-ordinating data and information to inform the annual global SDG progress report; providing metadata for the indicator; contributing to statistical capacity building and coordinating with other agencies and stakeholders who are interested in contributing to the indicator development. The custodian agencies which are responsible for different indicators in SDG 16 are: UNODC, WHO; DESA; OHCHR; UNDP; UNESCO-UIS; UNICEF; UNCTAD; UNODA; UNSD; and the World Bank. Each of the 23 indicators are categorised into three tiers on the basis of their level of methodological development and the availability of data at the global level. There are five tier 1 indicators, ten tier 2 indicators and seven tier 3 indicators, classified as follows:

  • Tier 1: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, and data are regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.
  • Tier 2: Indicator is conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, but data are not regularly produced by countries.
  • Tier 3: No internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested.

The SDGs must be both globally comparable and nationally relevant.  The 2030 Agenda encourages the development of regional and national indicators to complement the global ones where needed (paragraph 75). As many countries are challenged in integrating global SDG indicators into national monitoring systems and in meeting the full data needs by 2030, they develop national indicators to improve SDG data coverage, notably through proxy indicators or alternative sources that are available.  It is also recognized that, in several cases, not all the multiple aspects of the targets are addressed by the global indicators and that countries should complement the global indicators with additional nationally relevant indicators – these can be sourced from existing cross-country measures or developed nationally. This nationalization of SDG indicators is not a one-off event, but rather a process. In addition, many researchers, international organisations, civil society actors and also governments have developed and have been using indicators to measure progress on peace, justice and inclusion over the past decade.

      Tier Custodian Agency
 t1


Target 16.1: Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere

Indicator 16.1.1: Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age 1 UNODC
WHO
Indicator 16.1.2: Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause 2 OHCHR
Indicator 16.1.3: Proportion of population subjected to (a) physical violence, (b) psychological violence and (c) sexual violence in the previous 12 months 2 UNODC
Indicator 16.1.4: Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live 2 UNODC
 t2
Target 16.2: End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children
Indicator 16.2.1: Proportion of children aged 1–17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month 2 UNICEF
Indicator 16.2.2: Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation 2 UNODC
Indicator 16.2.3: Proportion of young women and men aged 18–29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18 2 UNICEF
 t3
Target 16.3: Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
Indicator 16.3.1: Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms 2 UNODC
Indicator 16.3.2: Unsentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population 1 UNODC
Indicator 16.3.3: Proportion of the population who have experienced a dispute in the past two years and who accessed a formal or informal dispute resolution mechanism, by type of mechanism 2 UNODC, UNDP, OECD
 t4
Target 16.4: By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime
Indicator 16.4.1: Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars) 2 UNODC, UNCTAD
Indicator 16.4.2: Proportion of seized, found or surrendered arms whose illicit origin or context has been traced or established by a competent authority in line with international instruments 2 UNODC, UNODA
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Target 16.5: Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms
Indicator 16.5.1: Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months 2 UNODC
Indicator 16.5.2: Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months 1 World Bank, UNODC
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Target 16.6: Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
Indicator 16.6.1: Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar) 2 World Bank
Indicator 16.6.2: Proportion of population satisfied with their last experience of public services 2 UNDP
 t7
Target 16.7: Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
Indicator 16.7.1: Proportions of positions in national and local institutions, including (a) the legislatures; (b) the public service; and (c) the judiciary, compared to national distributions, by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups 2 IPU, UNDP
Indicator 16.7.2: Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group 2 UNDP
 t8
Target 16.8: Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance
Indicator 16.8.1: Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations 1 DESA/FFDO
 t9
Target 16.9: By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration
Indicator 16.9.1: Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age 1 UNSD, UNICEF
 t10
Target 16.10: Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements
Indicator 16.10.1: Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months 2 OHCHR
Indicator 16.10.2: Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information 2 UNESCO-UI
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Target 16.a: Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime
Indicator 16.a.1: Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles 1 OHCHR
 t b
Target 16.b: Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development
Indicator 16.b.1: Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law 2 OHCHR

Photo credit: @UNDP Lao PDR

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